As part of the NGCM Summer Academy I took part in a three day workshop which was lead by Min RK one of the core developers of both IPython and Project Jupyter. To avoid confusion it should be noted that Jupyter is the new incarnation of what was known as the IPython notebook - a browser application that allows for interactive code evaluation and document preparation - which is now languge agnostic. There are currently kernels that allow the creation of notebooks in R, Julia, Matlab, and many other languges.
The workshop material included a basic introduction to Jupyter Notebooks on the first day; an excellent tour of the interactive features of the Jupyter Notebook on the second day; and finishing up the workshop on the final day we were introduced to the parallelism possible using Jupyter Notebooks. All the material for the workshop can be downloaded from Github by following this link.